Every living organism is classified based on the fundamental structure of its cells -the prokaryotes and the eukaryotes. The major difference between both cell structures is that prokaryotes lack a cell nucleus or membrane while eukaryotes possess a membrane-bound nucleus that holds genetic material as well as membrane-bound organelles.
All cells share some common characteristics that make them living things. All organisms are composed of cells, the basic fundamental unit of life. Cells contain DNA as a heritable genetic material, and they can reproduce.
Also, they transcribe DNA into RNA and translate RNA into proteins on ribosomes. They can also regulate transport across a cell membrane and require chemical energy for some cellular processes.
Generally, the most significant difference between the bacteria in your body and the cells making up your body are these tiny cellular components called organelles.
You’ve actually learned a lot about organelles in other lessons without knowing it. Organelles are simply membrane-bound compartments within a cell, such as a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum.
What are Prokaryotic Cells?
Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea. All animals are eukaryotes. Other eukaryotes include plants, fungi, and protists.
Having organelles is a big deal for a cell. A bacteria cell gets along just fine without organelles, but bacteria are tiny. That’s why we’re able to have so many of them in our bodies without really noticing them. Our cells, though – they’re still small to the naked eye, but they’re huge in comparison to bacteria.
Also, our eukaryotic cells are bigger in size, with much more DNA. More DNA means more transcription, and more transcription means more translation, and more translation means more proteins. Bigger cells create the need for organelles.
What are Eukaryotes Cells?
It is widely assumed that eukaryotes have been evolved from prokaryotes. They have been characterized by their membrane nucleus. They contain organelles like mitochondria bounded by membranes and are located in the cytoplasm. That is they contain a definite nucleus.
The chromatin bodies are enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Both asexual and sexual division occurs in eukaryotes. They are larger than prokaryotes and show better structural organization and increased functional efficiency than prokaryotes.
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled, such as you, me, plants, fungi, and insects.